Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Strategies for Enhancement in Food production NEET Biology Notes
Academic
January 31, 2023

Food is essential for the survival of living organisms and their development. As the population is increasing, it is pivotal to increase food production. Biological concepts used in animal husbandry and plant breeding play a critical part in our attempts to boost food supply. Several innovative approaches, such as embryonic stem cell Tissue culture and transfer technology, are advancing to play a critical role in improving food production. In this blog post, we will discuss the strategies for enhancement in food production.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: Animal Husbandry

It's a type of agriculture that involves raising, breeding, and feeding animals to acquire valuable goods. Animals are primarily raised for a variety of goods, including:

  • Cattle, sheep, goats, and other meat-producing animals are examples.
  • Cows, buffaloes, camels, goats, and other milk-producing animals
  • Horses, bulls, yaks, and other agricultural animals are used for physical work.
  • Poultry birds such as hens, geese, and ducks are used for egg production.

India and China are home to more than 70% of the world's domesticated animal population. Nonetheless, the commitment to global agriculture output is just 25%, implying a poor efficiency per unit. As a result, fresh innovations must be linked to achieving quality and efficiency improvements.

Management Of Farm And Farm Animals:

Dairy Farm Management:


  • Cow, buffalo, sheep, and goats are the common dairy farm animals. 
  • It is the management of animals to increase the output and quality of milk products. 
  • Milk output is determined by the breeds present on the farm.
  • It is critical to select high-quality breeds with high production potential and resistance to diseases. 

For the possible yield:

  •  The steers must be carefully cared for; they must be adequately housed, have plenty of water, and be healthy.
  •  Dairy cattle should be fed rationally, with special attention paid to the quality and quantity of feed.
  •  Strict sanitary conditions and cleanliness (of steers and handlers) throughout the milking, storage, and transportation.

These operations have now been automated. It reduces the chance of the supplied product making direct touch with the handler.

To ensure these strict safeguards, there should be:

  • Regular audits with proper documentation. It also distinguishes and resolves the problems.
  • Veterinary specialist visits regularly.

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Poultry Farm Management:

It includes the domestication of birds like geese, ducks, hens, turkeys etc. They are mainly reared on high-quality eggs and meat. Proper cleaning and maintaining hygiene conditions in the cage are the prime focus of poultry management.


Know About Animal Breeding

It is an important part of animal husbandry. Breeding is crossing of two animals to develop desired attributes by selecting two animals with superior traits. A collection of creatures connected by ancestry share many characteristics, such as appearance, traits, and size.


Breeding objectives

  • To boost animal productivity.
  • To improve a product's appealing attributes.

Types of Breeding

  • Inbreeding
  • Outbreeding

Inbreeding

Inbreeding is used in animal husbandry to describe the mating of more closely related animals of the same breed over four generations. Closely related individuals' superior females and  males are identified and matched. Inbreeding has the following effects:

  • Develops the animal's homozygous pure lines.
  • Recessive genes are exposed to undesired traits that can be deleted.
  • As a result, better genes accumulate while poor ones are eliminated.
  • Inbreeding causes the animal's fertility and output to decline. Inbreeding depression is the term for this. It can be overcome by mating the animal with a superior animal of the same breed unrelated to it.

Outbreeding

Outbreeding occurs when animals of various breeds are crossed. Out-crossing, cross-breeding, and interspecific hybridization are all examples.

  • Out-crossing is the mating of animals of the same breed who have not shared ancestors for at least four generations. It's often reserved for animals with low production and growth rates. It helps in the treatment of inbreeding depression.

  • Cross-breeding: In this approach, popular men of one breed are coupled with unmatched ladies of another breed.

  • Two unique breeds' attractive features are combined.

  • The hybrid animals' progeny might be used for commercial purposes or subjected to inbreeding and selection to produce new stable unequalled breeds.

  • For example, Hissardale (sheep) was developed in Punjab by combining Bikaneri ewes with Marino rams.

 

  • Hybridization between species: It is the union of two different species' females and males.

  • In other situations, the offspring may combine enticing features of both guardians and may be financially valuable. Donkey or mule, for example (male as X female stallion).

Control Breeding Techniques


Artificial Insemination means

The male's sperm is collected and injected into the female's reproductive system. Semen can either be frozen or utilized right away.


MOET Technology (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer)

An FSH-like hormone is given to the cow, which causes follicular maturity and superovulation. Instead of one egg every cycle, six to eight eggs are generated during superovulation. The cow is artificially inseminated or spontaneously mated with a better bull. Non-surgically, a fertilized egg is collected at 832 cell stages and delivered to a surrogate mother.

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Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding

Plant breeding is changing a plant's genetic pattern to improve its value and usefulness for human wellbeing. It is the deliberate modification of plants to produce desirable plant kinds that are more suitable for cultivation, yield more, and are disease-resistant. Plant breeding is carried out for the following reasons:

  • Crop yields should be increased
  • Increase the crop's quality
  • Increase your tolerance for environmental factors such as severe temperatures
  • Develop a pathogen resistance.
  • Increasing insect pest tolerance

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Steps For Different Breeding Methods:

a) Genetic diversity collection — gathering and preserving all unique wild assortments, species, and relatives of developed species.

b) Plant evaluation and guardian selection - Plants are evaluated to identify those with appealing characteristics. The chosen plants are reproduced and used as part of the hybridization process.

c) Cross-hybridization between the chosen guardians — Cross-hybridization between the two guardians results in crossovers that hereditarily combine the desirable characteristics in a single plant.

d) Unrivaled recombinant selection and testing – The determination technique is critical to achieving the reproduction goal and necessitates a rigorous logical appraisal of the descendants. These are self-pollinated for a few eras until they reach a state of consistency that prevents the traits from isolating in the progeny.

e) New cultivar testing, discharge, and commercialization – This evaluation is completed by enabling these plants to grow in exploratory fields and documenting their performance under ideal manure application, water system, and other crop management methods. It will be tested in agriculturists' fields for at least three years in various locations around the country. 

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Plant Breeding For Improve Food Qualities

The most common method of breeding crops for higher vitamins, minerals and fats is biofortification. Malnutrition can be overcome as a result of this. For the breeding programme, the following goals were considered:

  • Quality and quantity of protein
  • Quality and quantity of oil
  • nutrient content
  • Content and quality of micronutrients

Some biofortification examples:

  • Fortified maize has twice as much lysine and tryptophan as regular wheat.
  • 66 wheat has a high protein content
  • 5 times more iron in iron-fortified rice
  • Carrots and spinach, for example, are high in vitamins and minerals.
  • Bitter gourd high in vitamin C.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Tissue Culture And Single Cell Protein

Single Cell Protein (SCP):

It may be used as a protein source for both humans and animals. Microbes such as Spirulina, for example. Minerals, protein, lipids, vitamins, and sugar abound in Spirulina. It is made from wastewater from potato processing facilities, molasses, straw, sewage, animal manure, etc. This also reduces pollution in the environment. A 250-pound dairy cow generates 200 grammes of protein each day. 250g of a miniaturized organism like Methylophilusmethylotrophus produces 25 tonnes of protein in the same amount of time.

Tissue Culture:


It is a technique for developing cell tissue or organs under regulated circumstances in the nutritional medium. Explant refers to the portion of the plant that is used for cultivation. Clorox water is used to sanitize the explant. The explant can be grown in a liquid, solid, or semi-solid media. Inorganic nutrients, organic nutrients, growth hormones, and other substances are included in the nutritional medium.

Cellular totipotency refers to a plant cell's capacity to produce a new plant. Explants are grown in culture media at the right temperature and with enough aeration. Micropropagation is the process of generating thousands of plants using tissue culture.


Application of Plant Tissue Culture

  • In a short period, several commercial useful plants can be grown.
  • These plants are the same as their parent plant genetically from which the explant is collected.
  • Disease-free plant production- This approach can create healthy duplicates of a sick plant. When diseased plant shoot tips are cultured in a culture medium, they yield healthy plants.

Hybridization Somatic

By disintegrating the cell walls of a single cell, scientists can get a bare protoplast. To create a hybrid protoplast, isolated protoplast from two distinct types of plants with desirable features can be fused.

  • Somatic hybrids are a type of hybrid.
  • Potato and tomato protoplasts have been combined to generate a Pomato plant, but it is not commercially viable.

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