Food is essential for the survival of living organisms and their development. As the population is increasing, it is pivotal to increase food production. Biological concepts used in animal husbandry and plant breeding play a critical part in our attempts to boost food supply. Several innovative approaches, such as embryonic stem cell Tissue culture and transfer technology, are advancing to play a critical role in improving food production. In this blog post, we will discuss the strategies for enhancement in food production.
It's a type of agriculture that involves raising, breeding, and feeding animals to acquire valuable goods. Animals are primarily raised for a variety of goods, including:
India and China are home to more than 70% of the world's domesticated animal population. Nonetheless, the commitment to global agriculture output is just 25%, implying a poor efficiency per unit. As a result, fresh innovations must be linked to achieving quality and efficiency improvements.
These operations have now been automated. It reduces the chance of the supplied product making direct touch with the handler.
To ensure these strict safeguards, there should be:
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It includes the domestication of birds like geese, ducks, hens, turkeys etc. They are mainly reared on high-quality eggs and meat. Proper cleaning and maintaining hygiene conditions in the cage are the prime focus of poultry management.
It is an important part of animal husbandry. Breeding is crossing of two animals to develop desired attributes by selecting two animals with superior traits. A collection of creatures connected by ancestry share many characteristics, such as appearance, traits, and size.
Inbreeding is used in animal husbandry to describe the mating of more closely related animals of the same breed over four generations. Closely related individuals' superior females and males are identified and matched. Inbreeding has the following effects:
Outbreeding occurs when animals of various breeds are crossed. Out-crossing, cross-breeding, and interspecific hybridization are all examples.
The male's sperm is collected and injected into the female's reproductive system. Semen can either be frozen or utilized right away.
An FSH-like hormone is given to the cow, which causes follicular maturity and superovulation. Instead of one egg every cycle, six to eight eggs are generated during superovulation. The cow is artificially inseminated or spontaneously mated with a better bull. Non-surgically, a fertilized egg is collected at 832 cell stages and delivered to a surrogate mother.
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Plant breeding is changing a plant's genetic pattern to improve its value and usefulness for human wellbeing. It is the deliberate modification of plants to produce desirable plant kinds that are more suitable for cultivation, yield more, and are disease-resistant. Plant breeding is carried out for the following reasons:
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a) Genetic diversity collection — gathering and preserving all unique wild assortments, species, and relatives of developed species.
b) Plant evaluation and guardian selection - Plants are evaluated to identify those with appealing characteristics. The chosen plants are reproduced and used as part of the hybridization process.
c) Cross-hybridization between the chosen guardians — Cross-hybridization between the two guardians results in crossovers that hereditarily combine the desirable characteristics in a single plant.
d) Unrivaled recombinant selection and testing – The determination technique is critical to achieving the reproduction goal and necessitates a rigorous logical appraisal of the descendants. These are self-pollinated for a few eras until they reach a state of consistency that prevents the traits from isolating in the progeny.
e) New cultivar testing, discharge, and commercialization – This evaluation is completed by enabling these plants to grow in exploratory fields and documenting their performance under ideal manure application, water system, and other crop management methods. It will be tested in agriculturists' fields for at least three years in various locations around the country.
Strategies for enhancement in food production are an important topic, and the student must have a deep understanding of the chapter to answer accurately.
The most common method of breeding crops for higher vitamins, minerals and fats is biofortification. Malnutrition can be overcome as a result of this. For the breeding programme, the following goals were considered:
Some biofortification examples:
It may be used as a protein source for both humans and animals. Microbes such as Spirulina, for example. Minerals, protein, lipids, vitamins, and sugar abound in Spirulina. It is made from wastewater from potato processing facilities, molasses, straw, sewage, animal manure, etc. This also reduces pollution in the environment. A 250-pound dairy cow generates 200 grammes of protein each day. 250g of a miniaturized organism like Methylophilusmethylotrophus produces 25 tonnes of protein in the same amount of time.
It is a technique for developing cell tissue or organs under regulated circumstances in the nutritional medium. Explant refers to the portion of the plant that is used for cultivation. Clorox water is used to sanitize the explant. The explant can be grown in a liquid, solid, or semi-solid media. Inorganic nutrients, organic nutrients, growth hormones, and other substances are included in the nutritional medium.
Cellular totipotency refers to a plant cell's capacity to produce a new plant. Explants are grown in culture media at the right temperature and with enough aeration. Micropropagation is the process of generating thousands of plants using tissue culture.
By disintegrating the cell walls of a single cell, scientists can get a bare protoplast. To create a hybrid protoplast, isolated protoplast from two distinct types of plants with desirable features can be fused.
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