Chemical Compound: Meaning, Chemical Formula, and Types

Chemical Compound

Chemistry is built on the foundation of chemical compounds as the subject is incomplete without the mention of a particular concept. Students are exposed to this basic chemistry base from 8th or 9th class, and the very basic concept they come across is the chemical compound. Stop going into detail about the several sorts of mixes around us and the components that make up a mixture. As we all know, most of the matter in our environment is a combination of two or more components, such as minerals, soil, and the ocean. In this blog, we will study the chemical compounds in detail. Keep reading to grasp the concept and easily.

What is a Chemical Compound in Chemistry?

A compound is a pure substance composed of two or more elements chemically bonded at a defined mass ratio. The creation of connections is always the result of a chemical reaction. As a result, the compound lacks the properties of its components. The smallest unit formed after a substance is broken down is called the molecule of the compound.

The chemical formula represents the molecule of a substance. The formula of a compound expresses the composition of the compound, the symbol indicates an existing element, and the subscript indicates the number of atoms of each element. A molecule is a stable entity with its presence.

In simple terms, chemicals are a type of substance composed of atoms. Compounds are formed when different types of atoms are bonded in specific proportions. Compounds can be broken down into their constituents by a chemical process. And, it can also be broken down into simpler forms.

Chemical Formula of Compound

Chemical Formula is considered as the symbolic representation of elements present in it. The following are the list of the chemical formula of compounds in chemistry.

Compound Name

Molecular Formula

Molecular Formula

Hydrochloric Acid

36.458 g/mol


Sodium phosphate

119.976 g/mol


Ammonium sulfate

132.134 g/mol


Sodium bicarbonate

84.0066 g/mol


Calcium hydroxide

74.092 g/mol


Hydrobromic acid

80.912 g/mol


Numerous other chemical formulae are there which represent the chemical compounds. To build the foundational base in the subject, it is pivotal to take the help of an expert. You can take our online chemistry classes and start learning with us at a sensible price range.

Types of Chemical Compounds in Chemistry

Chemical compounds have a distinct chemical configuration connecting chemical bonds in a three-dimensional layout. Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds joined together by covalent bonds, salts tied together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds bound together by metallic bonds, or chemical complexes bound together by coordinated covalent links. Chemical elements in their pure state are normally not considered chemical compounds since they do not meet the two-atom criteria, even though they frequently comprise molecules made up of multiple atoms. The Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) has provided a unique number identification to some chemical compounds:

Molecular Compound

The covalent bond binds together the molecular compound. A molecule is an electrically neutral collection of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds. Molecules and ions are distinguished by their lack of electrical charge. However, in quantum organic chemistry, physics, and biology, the term molecule is typically used more loosely, and polyatomic ions are also referred to be molecules (having more than one atom).

The term molecule is frequently used in the kinetic theory of gases to refer to any gaseous particle, regardless of its component. According to this concept, noble gas atoms are monoatomic molecules. It can be a homonuclear example, O2 or heteronuclear H2O. When the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons, the covalent bond develops H2 (right).

What do you understand by covalent bonds?

 It is a chemical bond that distributes the electronic pairs among the atoms. These pairs of electronics are called the bonding pair or shared pair. The stable equilibrium of attractive and repulsive forces among the atoms is called a covalent bond.

Ionic Compound

The compounds held together by the ionic compound are called ionic compounds. It is a chemical compound composed of ions and held by electrostatic forces, called ionic bonding. The compound is neutral but consists of positively charged ions cations and negatively charged ions anions. The ionic compound includes hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acid and others having base ions oxide (O²⁻) or hydroxide (OH⁻) are classified as a base. Without these ions, the compounds are called salt, formed by the acid and base reaction.

Intermetallic Compound

Intermetallic compounds are a type of intermetallic compound. It is a type of metal alloy that forms a solid compound with a unique chemical theory and organized crystal structure, and are bonded by metallic bonds.

Compound Coordination

Certain complexes are linked by coordinated covalent bonds. Coordinating complexes are usually metallic, known as coordination centres, and the close array of bound molecules or ions is called a complexing agent or ligand. Coordination complexes are found in many metal-containing compounds, especially those containing transition metals. A metal complex is a coordination complex with a metal atom in the nucleus.

Organic and Inorganic Compounds

Another method of classifying the chemical compounds is the organic and inorganic compounds.

Organic Compounds: these consist of the carbon or any carbon atoms bound to hydrogen in the compound is called the organic. The following are examples of the organic compound:

  • Octane (C₈H₁₈)
  • Ethanol (C₂H₆O)
  • Glucose (C₆H₆O₆).

Inorganic Compounds: With a few exceptions, inorganic substances do not include carbon. It is inorganic if a chemical contains carbon, but the carbon atoms do not link to hydrogen atoms. Compounds with carbonate (CO3 2) or cyanate (OCN) ions, for example, are inorganic. The following are examples of inorganic compounds:

  • Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO₂)
  • Water (H₂O)

How are Compounds Different from the Elements?

The elements consist of atoms of types and cannot break the elements into simpler substances. Iron (Fe), oxygen (O2), and Silicon (Si) are examples of the elements.

The compound consists of more than one type of atom connected by chemical bonds. The compound can be broken down into simpler compounds, for example, water (H2O) and table salt (NaCl).

Basis of Difference



Building blocks

Developed by mixing one or more atoms.

Developed by pure atoms with no charge.


Many possibilities for bond-forming; therefore, the number of compounds cannot be decided.

Around 118 elements are present.


Some are freely available, whereas most of them are man-made.

Abundantly available in nature.

Number of atoms

Presence of hetromolecules

Presence of the same number of atoms throughout.


Exists as a complete compound but cannot exist in its ionic form.

Exists freely as atoms or molecules.


It has different properties from the elements that produce the compound.

Its properties are specific to its particular element.

Smallest Unit

Molecule is the smallest unit.

Atom is the smallest particle.


Chemical formulas and bonds are responsible for its prediction.

Identified by its specific atomic number.


Ionic and covalent bonds are mandated for its formation. 

No existence of an ionic or covalent bond between atoms.


No periodic tables are present for its organisations

It is systematically arranged in a periodic table.


Use symbols (alphabets) to represent.

Use a formula to represent.


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