Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Classification of Elements and Periodicity
Chemistry
June 02, 2023

Periodicity in chemistry and the periodic table refers to patterns or recurrent changes in element characteristics as atomic number increases. Periodicity is brought on by predictable and recurring changes in the atomic structure of elements. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties is an important concept that every science student studies. 

Mendeleev created a periodic table of elements by grouping elements based on recurrent features. A set of elements (a column) has similarities with its members. When a new row in the periodic table starts, the elements stack on top of one another with related qualities because the rows (or periods) represent the filling of electron shells surrounding the nucleus. For instance, the relatively inert gases neon and helium both glow when an electric current is sent through them. Both lithium and sodium are reactive, bright metals with a +1 oxidation state.

Genesis of Periodic Classification

The technique of periodic categorization of elements is the grouping of elements according to their properties, i.e., we maintain the similar elements in one group and the remaining elements in the other group. The periodic chart, which groups chemical elements according to atomic mass, was created by Russian scientist Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869. He prepared spaces in his periodic table to accommodate newly discovered elements since he anticipated their discovery. In 1886, French physicist Antoine Bequerel made the discovery of radioactivity.

1.Dobereiner’s Triads - Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner, a German scientist, tried to put together three

omparable elements with similar qualities. These teams were referred to as "triads." According to Dobereiner, the atomic mass of the middle element in these triads would be about equal to the mean of the atomic masses of the other two elements.

Lithium, sodium, and potassium would make up an illustration of such a trio. Lithium has an atomic mass of 6.94 whereas potassium has a mass of 39.10. With an atomic mass of 22.99, sodium, the middle member of this triangle, is roughly equivalent to the average of the atomic masses of lithium and potassium (which is 23.02).

 2. Newland’s Octaves - In 1866, English chemist John Newlands organised the 56 recognised elements in ascending order of atomic mass. Every eighth element, according to a pattern he saw, had traits that were comparable to the first. According to Newland's Law of Octaves, two elements with a seven-element gap between them would have periodicity in their characteristics that was identical when the elements were put in ascending order of atomic mass.

 3. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table - In 1869, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, a Russian scientist, proposed his periodic chart. He noticed the periodic relationship between an element's atomic mass and its physical and chemical characteristics. The chemical characteristics of elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights, according to the periodic law, commonly known as Mendeleev's law.

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What do you mean by Modern periodic table?

English scientist Henry Moseley investigated the typical x-rays' wavelength in 1913. By employing several metals as anti cathodes, it was demonstrated how the atomic number and the square root of the line's frequency are connected. Moseley provided the current periodic law, which is based on the aforementioned data, and it claims that the periodic function of an element's atomic number is its physical and chemical characteristics. In case you wish to explore this more than class 12 chemistry  and class 10 science online tutoring classes will help be beneficial for you. 

Classification of elements in modern periodic table

The current periodic law serves as the foundation for the periodic table's lengthy form. The elements are organised in the table in ascending order of their atomic numbers. The periodic chart as it exists now is known as the contemporary periodic table. 18 vertical columns and 7 horizontal rows make up the structure.

The Modern Periodic Table Groups

  • In the contemporary or long form of the periodic table, groups are the vertical columns.
  • The periodic table has 18 groups in all.
  • The numbers for these categories range from 1 to 18.
  • Each group is made up of components with the same electrical outer shell configuration.

The Modern Periodic Table's Periods

  • In the contemporary or long form of the periodic table, periods are the horizontal rows.
  • The periodic table has seven periods.
  • From top to bottom, these are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
  • There are just two elements in the first period: hydrogen and helium.
  • While each of the second and third periods has eight components.
  • Each of the fourth and fifth periods has 18 components.
  • The sixth period, on the other hand, has 32 components.
  • Four new elements have been added to the periodic table's seventh period. They are Nihonium (113), Moscovium (115), Tennessine (117), and Oganesson (118).  The seventh period now includes 32 components, thanks to this addition of actinoids.
  • The number of shells or energy levels found in an element's atom is represented by each period.

 

The Modern Periodic Table's Periodicity Cause

  • The repeating of a comparable exterior electrical configuration after predetermined regular intervals is what causes periodicity in characteristics.
  • For instance, all of the group 1 elements, or alkali metals, have the same outer electronic configuration, ns1. The Principal Quantum Number of the outermost shell, n, is used here.
  • The elements of group 17 also have this outer electronic configuration, which is ns2 np5. hence share comparable characteristics. Halogens describe them.
  • The elements of group 18 are similar in that they have an exterior electronic configuration of ns2 np6. Their orbits are completely filled. They are made up of inert gases, which are non-reactive substances. The electron configuration of helium and argon is comparable to that of the elements in this group. They are collectively referred to as inert gases.
  • In the same way, elements in a group share characteristics with all of its other members. This is due to the fact that each one of them has a comparable outer shell electron structure.

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